ISO 16949 8D Failure Analysis
Eight Disciplines Problem Solving (8D) is a methodology used to approach and to resolve problems, typically employed by quality engineers or other professionals.
Although it originally comprised eight stages, or ‘disciplines’, it was later augmented by an initial planning stage. The 8D follows the logic of the PDCA cycle. The disciplines are:
D0: Plan: Plan for solving the problem and determine the prerequisites.
D1: Use a Team: Establish a team of people with product/process knowledge.
D2: Define and describe the Problem: Specify the problem by identifying in quantifiable terms the who, what, where, when, why, how, and how many (5W2H) for the problem.
D3: Develop Interim Containment Plan; Implement and verify Interim Actions: Define and implement containment actions to isolate the problem from any customer.
D4: Determine, Identify, and Verify Root Causes and Escape Points: Identify all applicable causes that could explain why the problem has occurred. Also identify why the problem has not been noticed at the time it occurred. All causes shall be verified or proved, not determined by fuzzy brainstorming. One can use five whys or Ishikawa diagrams to map causes against the effect or problem identified.
D5: Choose and Verify Permanent Corrections (PCs) for Problem/Non Conformity: Through pre-production programs quantitatively confirm that the selected correction will resolve the problem for the customer. (Verify the correction will actually solve the problem)
D6: Implement and Validate Corrective Actions: Define and Implement the best corrective actions.
D7: Take Preventive Measures: Modify the management systems, operation systems, practices, and procedures to prevent recurrence of this and all similar problems.
D8: Congratulate Your Team: Recognize the collective efforts of the team. The team needs to be formally thanked by the organization.
8D has become a standard in the auto, assembly and other industries that require a thorough structured problem solving process using a team approach.
But what does it all mean?
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